Galician Language: Pride and Survival

By Wikipedia:

Galician-Portuguese, also known as Old Portuguese or Medieval Galician, was a West Iberian Romance language spoken in the Middle Ages, in the northwest area of the Iberian Peninsula.
It was first spoken in the area bounded in the north and west by the Atlantic Ocean and the Douro River in the south but it was later extended south of the Douro by the Reconquista. It is the common ancestor of modern Galician, Portuguese, Eonavian and Fala languages, and the extinct Judaeo-Portuguese language.
The term "Galician-Portuguese" also designates the subdivision of the modern West Iberian group which is composed by Galician, Portuguese, and the Fala language.

Origins and history
Galician-Portuguese developed in the region of the former Roman province of Gallaecia, from the Vulgar Latin (common Latin) that had been introduced by Roman soldiers, colonists and magistrates during the time of the Roman Empire. Although the process may have been slower than in other regions, the centuries of contact with Vulgar Latin, after a period of bilingualism, completely extinguished the native languages. Leading to the development of a new variety of Latin with a few Gallaecian features.
Gallaecian and Lusitanian influences were absorbed into the local Vulgar Latin dialect, and this can be detected in some Galician-Portuguese words as well as in place-names of Celtic and Iberian origin (e.g. Bolso). In general, the more cultivated variety of Latin spoken by the Hispano-Roman elites in Roman Hispania had a peculiar regional accent, referred to as Hispano ore and agrestius pronuntians. The more cultivated variety of Latin coexisted with the popular variety. It is assumed that the Pre-Roman languages spoken by the native people, each used in a different region of Roman Hispania, contributed to the development of several different dialects of Vulgar Latin and that these diverged increasingly over time, eventually evolving into the early Romance Languages of the Iberia.
It is believed that by the year 600, Vulgar Latin was no longer spoken in the Iberian Peninsula. An early form of Galician-Portuguese was already spoken in the Suebic Kingdom of Galicia and by the year 800 Galician-Portuguese had already become the vernacular of the north-west of Iberia. The first known phonetic changes in Vulgar Latin which began the evolution to Galician-Portuguese took place during the rule of the Germanic groups, the Suevi (411–585) and Visigoths (585–711). And the Galician-Portuguese "inflected infinitive" (or "personal infinitive") and the nasal vowels may have evolved under the influence of local Celtic languages (as in Old French). The nasal vowels would thus be a phonologic characteristic of the Vulgar Latin spoken in Roman Gallaecia, but they are only attested in writing after the 6th and 7th centuries.
The oldest known document to contain Galician-Portuguese words, found in northern Portugal, called the Doação à Igreja de Sozello and dated to 870, but is otherwise composed in Late Latin. Another document from 882 also containing some Galician-Portuguese words is the Carta de dotação e fundação da Igreja de S. Miguel de Lardosa. In fact, many Latin documents written in Portuguese territory contain Romance forms. The Notícia de fiadores, written in 1175, is thought by some to be the oldest known document written in Galician-Portuguese.
The Pacto dos irmãos Pais, recently discovered (and possibly dating from before 1173), has been said to be even older. But despite the enthusiasm of some scholars, it has been shown that these documents are not really written in Galician-Portuguese but are in fact a mixture of Late Latin and Galician-Portuguese phonology, morphology and syntax. The Notícia de Torto, of uncertain date (c. 1214?), and the Testamento de D. Afonso II (27 June 1214) are most certainly Galician-Portuguese. The earliest poetic texts (though not the manuscripts in which they are found) date from c. 1195 to c. 1225. Thus by the end of the 12th century and the beginning of the 13th there are documents in prose and verse written in the local Romance vernacular.


Galician-Portuguese had a special cultural role in the literature of the Christian kingdoms of medieval Iberia, comparable to that of Occitan in France and Italy during the same historical period. The main extant sources of Galician-Portuguese lyric poetry are:
The language was used for literary purposes from the final years of the 12th century until roughly the middle of the 14th century in what are now Spain and Portugal and was, almost without exception, the only language used for the composition of lyric poetry. Over 160 poets are recorded, among them Bernal de Bonaval, Pero da Ponte, Johan Garcia de Guilhade, Johan Airas de Santiago, and Pedr' Amigo de Sevilha. The main secular poetic genres were the cantigas d'amor (male-voiced love lyric), the cantigas d'amigo (female-voiced love lyric) and the cantigas d'escarnho e de mal dizer (including a variety of genres from personal invective to social satire, poetic parody and literary debate).
All told, nearly 1,700 poems survive in these three genres. And there is a corpus of over 400 cantigas de Santa Maria (narrative poems about miracles and hymns in honor of the Holy Virgin). The Castilian king Alfonso X composed his cantigas de Santa Maria and his cantigas de escárnio e maldizer in Galician-Portuguese, even though he used Castilian for prose.
King Dinis of Portugal, who also contributed (with 137 extant texts, more than any other author) to the secular poetic genres, made the language official in Portugal in 1290. Until then, Latin had been the official (written) language for royal documents; the spoken language did not have a name, being simply known as lingua vulgar ("ordinary language", that is Vulgar Latin) until it was named "Portuguese" in King Dinis' reign. "Galician-Portuguese" and português arcaico ("Old Portuguese"), are modern terms for the common ancestor of modern Portuguese and modern Galician. Compared to the differences in Ancient Greek dialects, the alleged differences between 13th century Portuguese and Galician are trivial.


As a result of political division, Galician-Portuguese lost its unity when the County of Portugal separated from the Kingdom of Galicia to establish the Kingdom of Portugal. The Galician and Portuguese versions of the language then diverged over time as they followed independent evolutionary paths.

It's the linguistic and cultural movement in Galicia which defends the unity of Galician and Portuguese as a single language. In other words, it postulates that Galician and Portuguese languages did not only share a common origin and literary tradition, but that they are in fact variants of the same language today. According to this, Galicia should officially "re-integrate" into the Community of Portuguese Language Countries.

  •  The isolationist considers Galician and Portuguese to be two distinct languages, despite the fact of the two being closely related. Isolationists favour differentiated rules of writing and spelling between Galician and Portuguese.
     In this fashion, Galician spelling follows the model of Spanish orthography. This view is held by the majority of public and Government organizations. Its standard norm, the "NOMIGa", is elaborated by the Real Academia Galega (Royal Galician Academy) and the Instituto da Língua Galega (Institute for Galician Language).
  • Among other criteria, isolationism argues that since the majority of the Galician population was initially educated in Spanish only (as official use of Galician was forbidden for centuries, especially during Franco's dictatorship), it is easier to create a Galician written norm which is closer to Spanish, therefore more "familiar", regardless of other considerations. It is also alleged that since the Spanish language had such a vast influence in modern Galician its contribution should not be simply disregarded. This influence is noticeable in some aspects of Galician phonetics and colloquial speech.
From the Portuguese side, a number of relevant linguists and authors such as Luís Lindley Cintra, Manuel Rodrigues Lapa, Carlos Reis or Malaca Casteleiro have expressed their agreement with the reintegrationist views.

Genesis of the debate

The divergences between isolationism and reintegrationism can be traced back to the time of the Galician Ressurgimento (Revival), in the nineteenth century, when Galician began to be systematically written again in Galician territory for the first time since the Middle Ages. Up to that time, written Galician was either forbidden or simply dismissed by the Spanish authorities, and certainly not allowed to be used officially. Hence, Rexurdimento Galician writers realized they did not "know" how Galician should be spelled properly. There were three possible options: to infer it from the Medieval forms; to use the Spanish spelling which was already known to all; or to use the Portuguese spelling, feeling that written Portuguese was "what Galician would have been if it had not been forbidden". Authors such as Castelao, among others, stated that Galician should gradually merge with Portuguese, namely in its written form. The reality was that until the 1980s Galician was often written using a mix of the three options.
The Lusitanian and Galician languages are the same.
Padre Feijoo, Theatro Critico Universal, 1726
There are two opinions on the orthographic norms of our native language: the phonetic (...) influenced by the domination of Spanish, and another one (...) where etymology is its main and most logical attribute (...) because (Portuguese orthography) is the natural orthography of the Galician language, and I cannot understand how there still are not only doubts about this, but even opinions against it (...) with no scientific basis.
—Roberto Blanco Torres, La unificación ortográfica del idioma gallego, 1930
There is a reason why our language is the same as in Portugal (...) Our languages must become the same one again.
Otero Pedrayo, Discursos Parlamentarios, 1933
Galician is a wide-spread and useful language which - with small variations - is spoken in Brazil, Portugal and in the Portuguese colonies.
Castelao, Sempre en Galiza, 1944
Yet, with the end of the Franco dictatorship in 1975, and with the Spanish transition to democracy, Galicia became an autonomous community with the Statute of Autonomy of 1981, with Galician as its official language (alongside Spanish). It was then urgently required to establish a fixed standard form. Claims for Galician-Portuguese linguistic unity had already been produced, as evidenced with the Manifesto para a supervivência da cultura galega (Manifesto for the Survival of Galician Culture), first published in 1974. Still, the first draft of the language norms was produced in 1979 under the guidance of linguist Professor Ricardo Carvalho Calero. These norms recommended a gradual approach to Portuguese, often allowing for a number of different solutions in case of doubt.
However, political issues forced the resignation of Carvalho Calero and, consequently, the 1979 pro-reintegrationist norms were revoked. The new official norms and reforms to be passed from 1982 onwards would be strongly pro-isolationist, until today.


Reintegrationism currently accepts two possibilities for writing Galician: either adopting the standard Portuguese written norm or using a slightly modified norm following the recommendations of AGAL. In any case, reintegracionism considers that spoken Galician and all of its characteristic words, expressions, and pronunciation should not be radically substituted by standard Portuguese. The main recommendations of reintegrationism when referring to spoken Galician revolve around the avoidance of unnecessary Spanish loanwords, namely colloquialisms. In writing the most obvious differences from the official norm (NOMIGa) are (according to AGAL):
  • Use of nh instead of the letter ñ to represent the palatal nasal sound. For example: caminho instead of camiño (way)
  • Use of the digraph lh instead of ll to represent the palatal lateral sound. For example: coelho instead of coello (rabbit)
  • Use of -çom or -ção instead of the suffix -ción. For example: associaçom or associação instead of asociación (association)
  • Preference for the use of suffixes -aria and -vel over -ería and -ble or even -bel. For example: livraria instead of librería (bookshop); incrível instead of incrible or incríbel (incredible)
  • Use of ss between vowels, when appropriate, instead of the simplified s for all cases. For example: associação instead of asociación
  • Use of either x, j or g preceding e or i, according to the etymology of the word, instead of x for all cases. For example: hoje instead of hoxe (today), geral instead of xeral (general), but exército as in exército (army)
  • Use of m instead of n at the end of a word. For example: som instead of son (sound)
  • Use of a wider range of accentuation signs instead of the simplified single stroke. For example: português instead of portugués (Portuguese), comentário instead of comentario (commentary). Note that the official ortography, being a calque of Spanish one, does not cater for any difference between open and closed vowels, since Spanish does not have them
  • Avoidance of specific lexical choices (namely colloquialisms) introduced by Spanish
Even though the reintegrationist norm does not have "official" status, it has been recognized in courts of law. Furthermore, Galician members of the European Parliament (such as José Posada or Camilo Nogueira) have used spoken Galician when addressing the chamber and have used standard Portuguese orthography to encode their Galician talk. In all cases these interventions and encodings have been accepted by the Parliament as a valid form of Portuguese, that is, an official language of the European Union.
Furthermore, members of Galician reintegracionist associations have been regularly present at meetings of the CPLP (Community of Portuguese-Speaking Countries). In 2008, Galician delegates were invited as speakers to the Portuguese Parliament when discussing the new spelling norms for Portuguese language.
The local government of Corcubión (a Galician municipality) was the first public institution to officially use the AGAL norm, as seen in its website, offering options for "Galician" (NOMIGa) and "Galician-Portuguese" (AGAL) - plus English and Spanish.

Common positions

Theoretically, the positions of the standards of NOMIGa (official norm) and AGAL are not so different. Although usually accused of having pro-Spanish tendencies, it is stated at the introduction of the NOMIGa that "standard choices must be in harmony with those of other languages, especially to those of Romance languages and especially to those of Portuguese". Furthermore, they value "the contribution of Peninsular and Brazilian Portuguese" in the creation of the Galician norm. This being the philosophy behind the "official standard", both NOMIGa and AGAL share an initial starting point, but it is often discussed that the NOMIGa are far removed from the usual speech of day-to-day and older Galician speakers, in addition to "isolate" (hence the term isolacionist) Galician from the rest of Portuguese-speaking areas by using a different writing system. In any case, European and Brazilian Portuguese are usually analyzed by both isolationists and reintegrationists as a primary source from which to extract scientific and technical terminology and neologisms.

Political implications

As with many other aspects of Galician society and culture, language is deeply politicized in Galicia. Traditionally, the defence and promotion of Galician language has been linked to Galician nationalism, yet this is often considered a simplification. Likewise, different political groups and parties have adopted different approaches to the "isolationism vs reintegrationism" polemic. Broadly speaking, pro-independence groups have traditionally expressed a greater support for the reintegrationist norm, while others have adopted the isolationist. In any case, all the linguistic organizations behind both reintegrationism and isolationism have attempted to dissociate themselves from the political debate. For example, AGAL members have often expressed that this is merely a linguistic, hence scientific, discussion, and that it should not become the arena for political fights among the community of Galician speakers.


Accentuation section on the 'Critical Study' to the ILG-RAG norm, by AGAL. Access date 1 September 2011 

Article about the 'Continuum' of the norms in Galicia. Access date 1 September 2011 

On the opening of the Galician Academy for Portuguese Language. Access date 8 October 2008

Selected quotes of Castelao and other Galician classics, commenting on Galician language and politics 

Selected quotes Galician classics on Reintegrationism and the Galician-Portuguese issue, commenting on Galician language and politics 

Manifesto para a supervivência da cultura galega, published in 1974, probably written originally circa 1971-72 

Biography of Carvalho Calero, explaining the development of the language norm and his implication in it 

Ao Lonxe: Ou o comezo da guerra normativa, blog explaining the "story" behind the "Norm war" 

 O galego já é oficial na União Europeia by José Manuel Barbosa, 2004-2012

O galego na União Europea, sound file, by Camilo Nogueira, Celso Álvarez Cáccamo et al., 2004  

Interview to Manuel Garcia: "I spoke Galician in the European Parliament", 2005 

Presença galega no parlamento português na comunicaçom social, 2008 

Reintegracioniso e nacionalismo hoje, by José Manuel Outeiro

 O reintegracionismo deve rachar com a imagem de marginalidade e seitarismo, Forum da Língua, 2000

Interview to Maurício Castro: O conhecimento e interesse polo reintegracionismo está hoje mais estendido socialmente, 2006 

Outeiro, op. cit.

Nova Proposta de Classificação dos Dialectos Galego-Portugueses, Luís F. Lindley Cintra, in Boletim de Filologia, 1971, Lisboa, Centro de Estudos Filológicos 

A Galiza, o galego e Portugal, Manoel Rodrigues Lapa, 1979, Sá da Costa, Lisboa 

Estudo crítico das normas ortográficas e morfolóxicas do idioma galego, AGAL 1983 and 1989, Corunha 

Prontuário ortográfico galego, AGAL, 1985, Corunha 

Sobre o problema da Galiza, da sua cultura e seu idioma, Manoel Rodrigues Lapa, in Agália no. 29, 1992 

A língua portuguesa da Galiza, compiled for students of Portuguese language at University College Cork, Xoán M. Paredes, 2006 

"I see my language everywhere": On linguistic relationship between Galicia and Portugal, Fernando Venâncio (conference), 2006 

O conflicto ortográfico do galego no CMI Galiza, 2006 

Reintegracionismo lingüístico: identidade e futuro para o galego from the magazine Voz Própria, 2007 

O Brasil fala a língua galega, Júlio César Barreto Rocha, Universidade Federal da Rondônia, (date unknown; 2000?)


The Language(s) of the Callaeci. Luján Martínez, Eugenio. (9 November 2007). Retrieved on 14 November 2011.

Origens e estruturação histórica do léxico português (1976)

A Toponímia Céltica e os vestígios de cultura material da Proto-História de Portugal. Freire, José. Revista de Guimarães, Volume Especial, I, Guimarães, 1999, pp. 265–275. (PDF) . Retrieved on 14 November 2011.

Bilingualism and the Latin language, J.N. Adams. Cambridge University Press. (PDF) . Retrieved on 14 November 2011.

As origens do romance galego-português. Instituto Luis de Camões

Alguns aspectos da Teoria da Continuidade Paleolítica aplicada à região galega. (PDF) . Retrieved on 14 November 2011

Comparative Grammar of Latin 34

Ethnologic Map of Pre-Roman Iberia (circa 200 B.C.). Retrieved on 14 November 2011.

Fonética histórica

The oldest document containing traces of Galician-Portuguese, a.D. 870. Retrieved on 14 November 2011.

Charter of the Foundation of the Church of S. Miguel de Lardosa, a.D. 882. Retrieved on 14 November 2011.

Norman P. Sacks, The Latinity of Dated Documents in the Portuguese Territory, Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania, 1945

 The oldest texts written in Galician-Portuguese

Ivo Castro, Introdução à História do Português. Geografia da Língua. Português Antigo. [Lisbon: Colibri, 2004], pp. 121–125, and by A. Emiliano, cited by Castro

Many of these texts correspond to the Greek psogoi mentioned by Aristotle [Poetics 1448b27] and exemplified in the verses of iambographers such as Archilochus and Hipponax.

Ribeira, José Manuel. A FALA GALEGO-PORTUGUESA DA BAIXA LIMIA E CASTRO LABOREIRO. Integrado no Projecto para a declaraçom de Património da Humanidade da Cultura Imaterial Galego-Portuguesa. (PDF) . Retrieved on 14 November 2011.


Manuscripts containing Galician-Portuguese ('secular') lyric (cited from Cohen 2003 [see below under critical editions]):
  • A = “Cancioneiro da Ajuda”, Palácio Real da Ajuda (Lisbon).
  • B = Biblioteca Nacional (Lisbon), cod. 10991.
  • Ba = Bancroft Library (University of California, Berkeley) 2 MS DP3 F3 (MS UCB 143)
  • N = Pierpont Morgan Library (New York), MS 979 (= PV).
  • S = Arquivo Nacional da Torre do Tombo (Lisbon), Capa do Cart. Not. de Lisboa, N.º 7-A, Caixa 1, Maço 1, Livro 3.
  • V = Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, cod. lat. 4803.
  • Va = Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, cod. lat. 7182, ff. 276rº – 278rº
Manuscripts containing the Cantigas de Santa Maria:
  • E = Real Monasterio de San Lorenzo (El Escorial), MS B. I. 2.
  • F = Biblioteca Nazionale Centrale (Florence), Banco Rari 20.
  • T = Real Monasterio de San Lorenzo (El Escorial), MS T. I. 1.
  • To = Biblioteca Nacional (Madrid), cod. 10.069 (“El Toledano”)
Critical editions of individual genres of Galician-Portuguese poetry (note that the cantigas d'amor are split between Michaëlis 1904 and Nunes 1932):
  • Cohen, Rip. (2003). 500 Cantigas d’ Amigo: Edição Crítica / Critical Edition (Porto: Campo das Letras).
  • Lapa, Manuel Rodrigues (1970). Cantigas d’escarnho e de mal dizer dos cancioneiros medievais galego-portugueses. Edição crítica pelo prof. –. 2nd ed. Vigo: Editorial Galaxia [1st. ed. Coimbra, Editorial Galaxia, 1965] with “Vocabulário”).
  • Mettmann, Walter. (1959–1972). Afonso X, o Sabio. Cantigas de Santa Maria. 4 vols [“Glossário”, in vol. 4]. Coimbra: Por ordem da Universidade (republished in 2 vols. [“Glossário” in vol. 2] Vigo: Edicións Xerais de Galicia, 1981; 2nd ed.: Alfonso X, el Sabio, Cantigas de Santa Maria, Edición, introducción y notas de –. 3 vols. Madrid: Clásicos Castália, 1986–1989).
  • Michaëlis de Vasconcellos, Carolina. (1904). Cancioneiro da Ajuda. Edição critica e commentada por –. 2 vols. Halle a.S., Max Niemeyer (republished Lisboa: Imprensa Nacional – Casa de Moeda, 1990).
  • Nunes, José Joaquim. (1932). Cantigas d’amor dos trovadores galego-portugueses. Edição crítica acompanhada de introdução, comentário, variantes, e glossário por –. Coimbra: Imprensa da Universidade (Biblioteca de escritores portugueses) (republished by Lisboa: Centro do Livro Brasileiro, 1972).
On the biography and chronology of the poets and the courts they frequented, the relation of these matters to the internal structure of the manuscript tradition, and myriad relevant questions in the field, please see:
  • Oliveira, António Resende de (1987). “A cultura trovadoresca no ocidente peninsular: trovadores e jograis galegos”, Biblos LXIII: 1–22.
  • ____ (1988). “Do Cancioneiro da Ajuda ao Livro das Cantigas do Conde D. Pedro. Análise do acrescento à secção das cantigas de amigo de O”, Revista de História das Ideias 10: 691–751.
  • ____ (1989). “A Galiza e a cultura trovadoresca peninsular”, Revista de História das Ideias 11: 7–36.
  • ____ (1993). “A caminho de Galiza. Sobre as primeiras composições em galego-português”, in O Cantar dos Trobadores. Santiago de Compostela: Xunta de Galicia, pp. 249–260 (republished in Oliveira 2001b: 65–78).
  • ____ (1994). Depois do Espectáculo Trovadoresco. a estrutura dos cancioneiros peninsulares e as recolhas dos séculos XIII e XIV. Lisboa: Edições Colibri (Colecção: Autores Portugueses).
  • ____(1995). Trobadores e Xograres. Contexto histórico. (tr. Valentín Arias) Vigo: Edicións Xerais de Galicia (Universitaria / Historia crítica da literatura medieval).
  • ____ (1997a). “Arqueologia do mecenato trovadoresco em Portugal”, in Actas do 2º Congresso Histórico de Guimarães, 319–327 (republished in Oliveira 2001b: 51–62).
  • ____ (1997b). “História de uma despossessão. A nobreza e os primeiros textos em galego-português”, in Revista de História das Ideias 19: 105–136.
  • ____ (1998a). “Le surgissement de la culture troubadouresque dans l’occident de la Péninsule Ibérique (I). Compositeurs et cours”, in (Anton Touber, ed.) Le Rayonnement des Troubadours, Amsterdam, pp. 85–95 (Internationale Forschungen zur allgemeinen und vergleichenden Literaturwissenschaft) (Port. version in Oliveira 2001b: 141–170).
  • ____ (1998b). “Galicia trobadoresca”, in Anuario de Estudios Literarios Galegos 1998: 207–229 (Port. Version in Oliveira 2001b: 97–110).
  • ____ (2001a). Aventures i Desventures del Joglar Gallegoportouguès (tr. Jordi Cerdà). Barcelona: Columna (La Flor Inversa, 6).
  • ____ (2001b). O Trovador galego-português e o seu mundo. Lisboa: Notícias Editorial (Colecção Poliedro da História).
For Galician-Portuguese prose, the reader might begin with:
  • Cintra, Luís F. Lindley. (1951–1990). Crónica Geral de Espanha de 1344. Edição crítica do texto português pelo –. Lisboa: Imprensa Nacional-Casa de Moeda (vol. I 1951 [1952; reprint 1983]; vol II 1954 [republished 1984]; vol. III 1961 [republished 1984], vol. IV 1990) (Academia Portuguesa da História. Fontes Narrativas da História Portuguesa).
  • Lorenzo, Ramón. (1977). La traduccion gallego de la Cronica General y de la Cronica de Castilla. Edición crítica anotada, con introduccion, índice onomástico e glosario. 2 vols. Orense: Instituto de Estudios Orensanos ‘Padre Feijoo’.
There is no up-to-date historical grammar of medieval Galician-Portuguese. But see:
  • Huber, Joseph. (1933). Altportugiesisches Elementarbuch. Heidelberg: Carl Winter (Sammlung romanischer Elementar- und Händbucher, I, 8) (Port tr. [by Maria Manuela Gouveia Delille] Gramática do Português Antigo. Lisboa: Fundação Calouste Gulbenkian, 1986).
A recent work centered on Galician containing information on medieval Galician-Portuguese is:
  • Ferreiro, Manuel. (2001). Gramática Histórica Galega, 2 vols. [2nd ed.], Santiago de Compostela: Laiovento.
  • An old reference work centered on Portuguese is:
  • Williams, Edwin B. (1962). From Latin to Portuguese. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press (1st ed. Philadelphia, 1938).
Latin Lexica:
  • Mediae Latinitatis Lexicon Minus. Lexique Latin Médiévale-Francais/Anglais. A Medieval Latin-French/English Dictionary. composuit J. F. Niermeyer, perficiendum curavit C. van de Kieft. Abbreviationes et index fontium composuit C. van de Kieft, adiuvante G. S. M. M. Lake-Schoonebeek. Leiden - New York - Köln: E. J. Brill 1993 (1st ed. 1976).
  • Oxford Latin Dictionary. ed. P. G. W. Glare. Oxford: Clarendon Press 1983.
Historical and Comparative Grammar of Latin:
  • Weiss, Michael. (2009). Outline of the Historical and Comparative Grammar of Latin. Ann Arbor, MI: Beechstave Press.
On the early documents cited from late 12th century, please see Ivo Castro, Introdução à História do Português. Geografia da Língua. Português Antigo. (Lisbon: Colibri, 2004), pp. 121–125 (with references).

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