domingo, 22 de maio de 2022

Original celtic words in galician-portuguese

 

Gallaecian Corono. Authors: CIAG ( Advanced Infographic Center of Galicia): Miguel Torre, Anxo Mijan, Carlos Paz e Paco Boluda.

Dicionário Estraviz

https://www.estraviz.org/

A - C

  • abanqueiro [m] 'waterfall' < *'(beaver) dam', formally a derivative in arium of *abanco, from Proto-Celtic *abankos 'beaver, water demon' cognate of Irish abacc 'dwarf', Welsh afanc 'beaver, dwarf', Breton avank 'dwarf, sea monster'.

  • abrunho/abrunheiro 'prunus spinosa'[m] 'sloe', dialectal agruño, from Vulgar Latin *aprūneu, from Latin prūnum, maybe under the influence of Celtic *agrīnio; akin to Irish áirne, Welsh eirin 'plum'; cognate of Occitan agranhon, Provençal agreno, Catalan aranyó, Aragonese arañon.

  • albó, alboio [m] 'shed, barn, enclosure', from proto-Celtic *ɸare-bow-yo-, cognate of Old Irish airbe 'hedge, fence, pen'.

  • Old Galician ambas [f p] 'waters, river', ambas mestas [f] 'confluence', from Celtic ambe 'water, river', akin to Gaulish ambe 'river', Old Irish aub.

  • ameneiro/amieiro) [m] 'common alder', a derivative in -arium of *abona 'river', related to Breton avon, Welsh afon, Irish abhann 'river'.

  • banastra [f] 'basket', from Old French banaste, from Celtic *benna 'cart'.

  • banço [m] 'crossbar, beam', from proto-Celtic *wank-yo-, cognate of Spanish banzo; akin to Irish féige 'ridgepole'. Derivatives: bança 'backrest', bançado, banção 'palisade, dam'.

  • barga [f] 'hut; wall made of hurdles; hurdle, fence', from Celtic *wraga, cognate of Spanish varga 'hut', French barge, akin to Old Irish friag, Irish fraigh 'braided wall, roof, pen', Br gwrac'hell 'haybale, rick of hay'. Derivatives: bargo 'stake or flagstone used for making fences or walls'; barganço, bargado 'hurdle, fence'.

  • barra [f] 'garret, loft, upper platform', from proto-Celtic *barro-, cognate of Irish, Breton barr 'summit, peak, top', Welsh bar

  • basculho [m] 'bundle of straw; broom', from proto-Celtic *baski- 'bundle', cognate of Gascon bascojo 'basket', Asturian bascayu 'broom', Breton bec'h 'bundle, load'.

  • berro [m] 'watercress', from proto-Celtic *beru-ro-, cognate of Spanish berro; akin to Old Irish biror, Welsh berwr, Old Breton beror; similarly French berle 'water parsnip' (< berula ; Ir biolar, Breton beler).

  • bico [m] 'beak, kiss', from proto-Celtic *bekko-, cognate of Italian becco, French bec. Derivatives: bicar 'to kiss', bicanho 'hill', bicalho (a fish, Gadus luscus).

  • bilha, [f] 'spigot; stick' to Proto-Celtic *beljo- 'tree, trunk', akin to Old Irish bille 'large tree, tree trunk', Manx billey 'tree', Welsh pill 'stump', Breton pil; cognate of French bille 'log, chunk of wood'.

  • borba [f] 'mud, slime, mucus', from proto-Celtic *borwâ-, cognate of French bourbe 'mud'; akin to Irish bearbh 'boiling', Welsh berw 'boiling', Breton berv 'broth, bubbling'. Derivatives: borbento 'mucilaginous'.

  • borne [m] 'edge', from French borne 'milestone, landmark', from Old French bosne, bodne, from Vulgar Latin *bodĭna / *budĭna 'border tree', from proto-Celtic *botina 'troop'., akin to Old Irish buiden, Welsh byddin 'army' (from *budīnā)

  • braga [f] 'trousers', from proto-Celtic *braco-, cognate of Spanish, Occitan braga, French braie, Italian brache. Derivatives: bragal, bragada 'spawn', bragueiro 'trus'.

  • branha [f] 'meadow, bog, quagmire', from proto-Celtic *bragno-, cognate of Asturian and Cantabrian braña, Catalan braina, akin to Irish brén Welsh braen Breton brein 'putrid', Ir bréanar W braenar Br breinar 'fallow field'. Derivatives: branhal, branheira, branhento 'idem'.

  • breijo [m] 'heather', from *broccius, from Proto-Celtic *vroiki-, akin to Old Irish froich, Welsh gwrug, Cornish grig; cognate of Spanish brezo, Occitan bruga, French bruyère.

  • Old Galician bren [m] 'bran', maybe from Provençal brem, from proto-Celtic *brenno-, cognate of French bran, Lombard bren.

  • bringa [f]'stalk, rod', from *brīnikā, from Celtic *brīnos 'rod'; akin to Welsh brwyn 'rush', Cornish broenn, Breton broen; cognate of French brin 'blade (of grass), stalk'.

  • brío [m] 'might, power', from Italian brio, from Catalan/Old Occitan briu 'wild', from Celtic *brigos, cognate of Occitan briu, Old French brif 'finesse, style'; akin to Old Irish bríg 'power', Welsh bri 'prestige, authority', Breton bri 'respect'.

  • Old Galician busto [m] 'cattle farm, dairy', from a Celtic compound *bow-sto- meaning 'cow-place', akin to Celtiberian boustom 'cow shed, byre', Old Irish buas 'wealth in cattle'; cognate of Portuguese bostar, Spanish bustar Derivatives: bustar 'pastures'.

  • cai [m] 'quay, jetty', maybe from French (itself from Norman) quai, from proto-Celtic *kag-yo-, akin to Welsh cae, Cornish ke, Breton kae 'hedge'; French chai 'cellar'.

  • cajigo [m] 'oak'. Tipical lusitanian and galician oak, from *cassīcos, from Celtic *cassos 'curly, twisted', akin to Irish cas 'to twist, turn, spin', Old Welsh cascord 'to twist'; cognate of Asturian caxigu, Aragonese caixico, Gascon casse, French chêne 'oak' (< *cassanos).

  • camba [f] 'wheel rim' from proto-Celtic *kambo-, cognate of Old Irish camm 'crooked'. Cognate of Occitan cambeta 'part of plough', Limousin Occitan chambija (< *cambica) 'part of plough' Derivatives: cambito, cambada, cambalha, cambeira 'coil; crooked log for hanging fish', cambela 'type of plough', cambota 'beam'.

  • cambiar 'to change', from Vulgar Latin cambiare, from proto-Celtic *kambo-,cognate of French changer, Occitan/Spanish cambiar, Catalan canviar, Italian cambiare; akin to Breton kemm 'exchange', Old Irish cimb 'ransom'. Derivatives: câmbio 'exchange', cambiador 'exchanger'.

  • caminho [m] 'pathway', from Vulgar Latin *cammīnus, from proto-Celtic *kanxsman-, cognate of Italian cammino, French chemin, Spanish camino, Catalan camí, Occitan camin; akin to Old Irish céimm, Breton cam 'step'. Derivatives: caminhar 'to walk'.

  • camisa [f] 'shirt' from Latin, from Gaulish camisia, cognate of Spanish/Occitan camisa, Italian camicia, French chainse

  • canga [f] 'collar, yoke', from Celtic *kambika.

  • canto [m] 'rim, corner', from proto-Celtic *kanto-, akin to Old Irish cét 'round stone pillar, Welsh cant 'tire rim', Breton kant 'disk'; cognate of Old French chant, Occitan cant, Spanish canto. Derivatives: recanto 'corner', cantão 'edge of a field', acantoar 'to hide, to isolate', cantil 'cliff'

  • carro [m] 'cart, wagon', from Vulgar Latin carrum, from proto-Celtic *karro-, cognate of Rumanian car, Italian carro, French char, Provençal car, Spanish carro; akin to Irish carr, Welsh car, Breton karr. Derivatives: carreira 'road', carregar 'to load'.

  • cerveja [f] 'beer', from Vulgar Latin *cerevisia, from Gaulish Cognates: Old French cervoise, Provençal, Spanish cerveza; akin to Old Irish coirm, Welsh cwrw, Breton korev.

  • cheda [f] 'lateral external board of a cart, where the crossbars are affixed', from Medieval Latin cleta, from proto-Celtic *klētā, cognate of Irish clíath 'palisade, hurdle', Welsh clwyd 'barrier, wattle, scaffolding, gate', Breton kloued; cognate of French claie 'rack, wattle fencing', Occitan cleda, Catalan cleda 'livestock pen', Basque gereta.

  • choco [m] 'cowbell; squid', from proto-Celtic *klokko-, akin to Old Irish clocc, Welsh cloch, Breton kloc'h; cognate of Asturian llueca and llócara 'cowbell', French cloche 'bell', German Glock. Derivatives: chocar 'to bang, to shock', chocalho 'cowbell'.

  • colmeia [m] 'beehive', from a Celtic form *kolmēnā 'made of straw' (cf. Spanish colmena 'beehive'), from *kolmos 'straw', which gave Leonese cuelmo; cf. Welsh calaf "reed, stalk", Cornish kalav "straw", Breton kolo "stalk").

  • cômaro, comareiro [m] 'limits of a patch or field, usually left intentionally unploughed', from proto-Celtic *kom-ɸare-(yo)-, cognate of Old Irish comair 'in front of', Welsh cyfair 'direction, place, spot, acre'. Or either to *kom-boros 'brought together'. Derivatives: acomarar 'to mark out a field (literally to dote with cómaros)'.

  • comba [f] 'valley, inflexion', from proto-Celtic *kumbā, cognate of North Italian comba, French combe, Occitan comba; akin to Irish com, coim 'chest cavity', Welsh cwm 'hollow (land form)', Cornish komm 'small valley, dingle', Breton komm 'small valley, deep water'.

  • combarro [m], combarriço [m] 'shed, shelter', from proto-Celtic *kom-ber-o- 'bring together'. Cognate of Middle French combres 'palisade in a river, for fishing'.

  • combo [m] (adj.) 'curved, bent', from Celtic *kumbo-, cognate of Provençal comb, Spanish combo. Derivatives: combar 'to bend'.

  • comboa [f] 'corral used for capturing fish trapped in low tide', from Old Galician combona, from Celtic *combā 'valley' or *combos 'bent'.

  • crica [f] 'vulva; nose; ribbon', from Celtic *cricā, from proto-Celtic *krīkʷā, cognate of Middle Irish crích 'furrow, boundary', Welsh crib 'comb, crest, ridge', Breton krib 'comb, crest'.

  • croio [m] 'rolling stone', croia [f] 'pip', from proto-Celtic *krowdi-, akin to Old Irish crúaid 'hard, harsh', Welsh cru, Breton kriz; cognate of Occitan croi 'cruel', North Italian crojo. Derivatives: croio (adj.) 'ugly, rude'; croído, croieira 'stony place/beach'.

  • crouca [f] 'head; withers (ox)', from Celtic croucā, cognate of Provençal crauc 'heap', Occitan cruca 'cape (land form)'; akin to Irish cruach 'pile, haystack', Welsh crug 'hillock, barrow, heap', Breton krug 'mound, barrow'. Derivatives: crocar 'swell, bulge, bruise', croque 'bump'.

  • curro [m] 'corral, pen; corner', from Celtic *korro-, akin to Middle Irish cor 'circle', corrán 'sickle', Welsh cor 'enclosure', Cornish kor 'turn, veering'; cognate of Spanish corro, corral. Derivatives: curruncho, currucho, currulho 'corner, end', currusco 'protruding part (in bread)', curral 'corral, pen'.

D - Z

  • dorna [f] 'a type of boat; trough, measurement (volume)', from proto-Celtic *durno- 'fist'. Akin to Old French, Occitan dorn, 'a handful'. Nevertheless the Asturian duerna 'bowl' demand a form **dorno-.

  • embaixada [f] 'embassy', from Provençal ambaissada, from ambaissa 'service, duty', from proto-Celtic *ambactos 'servant', akin to Welsh amaeth 'farm', Cornish ammeth 'farming', Old Breton ambaith

  • engo, irgo [m] 'danewort', from *édgo, from a Low Latin EDUCUS, from Gaulish odocos, idem. Cognate of Spanish yezgo, Asturian yeldu, Provençal olègue, idem.

  • galga [f] 'plain stone', from *gallikā, to Proto-Celtic *gallos 'stone', akin to Irish gall, French galet 'gravel' gallete 'plain cake', Spanish galga. Derivatives: galgar 'carving a stone to make it plain and regular'.

  • gavela [f] 'handful, faggot', from proto-Celtic *gabaglā-, cognate of French javelle, Provençal gavela, Spanish gavilla; akin to Old Cornish gavael 'catch, capture'.

  • gorar 'to hatch, to brood (an egg, or a sickness)', from proto-Celtic *gʷhor-, akin to Old Irish guirid 'to warm' Welsh/Cornish gori 'to brood, sit (on eggs)', Breton goriñ. Derivatives: goro 'warmed infertile egg'.

  • gúvia [f] 'gouge', from Celtic *gulbia, from *gulb- 'beak', cognate of Portuguese goiva, Spanish gubia, French gouge, Italian gubba; akin to Old Irish gulba 'sting', Irish gealbhán 'sparrow', Welsh gylyf 'sickle', gylf 'beak'.

  • laje [f] 'stone slab', from the medieval form lagena, from proto-Celtic *ɸlāgenā, cognate of Old Irish lágan, láigean, Welsh llain 'broad spearhead, blade'; akin to Irish láighe 'mattock, spade'.

  • lândoa [f] 'uncultivated plot', from *landula, Romance derivative of proto-Celtic *landā, cognate of Old Irish lann 'land, plot; church', Welsh lann 'church-yard', French lande 'sandy moor, heath', Provençal, Catalan landa.

  • lavego [m], lavega [f] 'plough', from *ɸlāw-aiko-, to proto-Celtic *ɸlāwo-, cognate of Langobard plovum, German Pflug, English plough.

  • legoa or légua [f] 'league', to Proto-Celtic *leukā, cognate of French lieue, Spanish legua; akin to Old Irish líe (genitive líac) 'stone', Irish liag

  • leira [f] 'plot, delimited and levelled field', from the medieval form laria, from proto-Celtic *ɸlār-yo-, akin to Old Irish làr 'ground', Breton leur 'ground', Welsh llawr 'floor'. Derivatives: leiro 'small, ou unleveled, plot', leirar 'land working', leiroto, leiruca 'small plot'.

  • Old Galician ler [m] 'sea, seashore', from proto-Celtic *liros, cognate of Old Irish ler, Irish lear, Welsh llyr 'sea'.

  • lercha [f] 'rod, stick (used for hanging fish)', from proto-Celtic *wliskā 'stick', cognate of Old Irish flesc.

  • lousa [f] 'flagstone', from Proto-Celtic *laws-, cognate of Provençal lausa, Spanish losa, French losenge 'diamond'. Derivatives: enlousar 'to cover with flagstones', lousado 'roof'.

  • marulo [m] 'big, fat kid', from *mārullu,diminutive of Proto-Celtic *māros 'large, great, big', akin to Welsh mawr, Breton meur.

  • meninho/menino [m] 'kid, child, baby', from medieval mennino, from proto-Celtic *menno-, akin to Old Irish menn 'kid (goat)', Irish meannán, Welsh myn, Breton menn. Derivatives: meninez 'childhood'.

  • minhoca [f] 'earthworm', dialectal mioca, miroca, from medieval *milocca, from proto-Celtic *mîlo-, akin to Asturian milu, merucu 'earthworm', Old Irish, Welsh, Breton mil 'animal'.

  • mosteia [f] 'bundle of straw', from proto-Celtic *bostā- 'hand, palm, first'.

  • olga [f] 'patch, plot', from proto-Celtic *ɸolkā, cognate of French ouche, Provençal olca. Nevertheless *ɸolkā must to result in **ouca.

  • peça [f] 'piece', from Vulgar Latin *pettia, from Gaulish petsi, from proto-Celtic *kʷezdi, cognate of Italian pezza, French pièce, Spanish pieza; akin to Old Irish cuit 'piece', Irish cuid, Welsh peth 'thing', Breton pez. Derivatives: empeçar 'to begin'.

  • rego [m], rega [f] 'furrow, ditch', from proto-Celtic *ɸrikā, akin to Welsh rhych, Breton reg, Scottish riach; cognate of French raie, Occitan, Catalan rega, Basque erreka. Derivatives: derregar 'to mark out a field', regato 'stream, gully, glen'.

  • reo [m] 'Salmo trutta trutta', from a Celtic form rhedo (Ausonius).

  • rodavalho [m] 'turbot', from a Celtic composite form *roto-ball-jo-, meaning 'round-extremity', akin to Irish roth 'wheel', Welsh rhod, Breton rod, and Irish ball 'limb, organ'. Knows in Portugal like “pregado”.

  • saio [m] 'coat' and saia [f] 'skirt', from the medieval form sagia, from an ancient Celtic form from which also Latin sagum 'robe'.

  • seara, senra [f] 'sown field recently broken up, but which is left fallow', from a medieval form senara, a Celtic compound of *seni- 'apart, separated' (cf. Old Irish sain 'alone', Welsh han 'other') and *aro- 'ploughed field'. (cf. Welsh âr, Irish ár 'ploughed field').

  • tasca [f] and tascão [m], 'swingle', related to Galatian taskós 'peg, stake'.

  • tojo [m], 'gorse, furze (Ulex europaeus)', from Celtic *togi-, akin to Spanish/Gascon toja, French dialectal tuie. Derivatives: fura-tojos 'marten'; toja 'ulex gallii'; tojedo, toja, tojeira 'place with toxos'.

  • tol and tola [m / f] 'irrigation channel', to Proto-Celtic *tullo- 'pierced, perforated', akin to Irish toll 'hollow, cave, hole', Welsh twll 'hole', Breton toull 'hole'; cognate of Spanish tollo 'hole', Catalan toll 'pool in a river', Old French tolon 'hill, upland'.

  • tona [f] 'skin, bark, scum of milk', from proto-Celtic *tondā, cognate of Old Irish tonn, Welsh tonn. Derivatives: toneira 'pot for obtaining butter from the milk'.

  • trosma [m] 'awkward, dimwitted', from proto-Celtic *trudsmo- or *truksmo- 'heavy', akin to Old Irish tromm, Welsh trwm.

  • trado, trade [m] 'auger', from proto-Celtic *taratro-, cognate of Irish tarathar, Welsh taradr, Breton tarar, Occitan taraire, Catalan taradre, Spanish taladro, French tarière, Romansch tarader. Derivatives: tradar 'to drill'.

  • tranca [f], tranco [m] 'beam, pole', from proto-Celtic *tarankā, cognate of Spanish tranca 'club, cudgel', French taranche 'screw bar, ratchet (wine press)', Provençal tarenco; akin to OIr tairinge 'iron nail, tine', Ir tairne 'metal nail, Sc tairnge 'nail'. Derivatives: taranção 'pillar inside the potter's oven' < *tarankyon-, tarangalho 'Wood nail, pin', trancar 'to bar a door'.

  • trobo [m] 'beehive', from the medieval form trebano, proto-Celtic *trebno-, akin to Old Irish treb 'farm', Cornish tre 'home; town', Welsh tref 'town'; akin to Asturian truébanu 'beehive', Provençal trevar 'to dwell, live (at)'.

  • trogo [m] 'sadness, anxiety, pity', from proto-Celtic *trougos, akin to Old Irish tróg, Irish trogha, Welsh tru 'wretched', Breton tru 'miserable'; cognate of Portuguese truhão, Spanish truhan 'baffoon, jester', French truand 'beggar'.

  • vassalo [m] 'vassal', from Vulgar Latin vassalus, from proto-Celtic *wasto-, cognate of French vassal, Spanish vasallo, Middle Irish foss 'servant', Welsh gwas 'servant; lad', Breton gwaz.

  • vereia [f] 'main road', from the medieval form vereda, from Celtic *uɸo-rēdo-,cognate of Spanish vereda 'pathway'; akin to Welsh gorwydd 'steed', Vulgar Latin veredus 'horse', French palefroi 'steed' (< *para-veredus).

  • vidoeiro [m] < *betūlariu, viduo [m] < *betūlu, vidulo [m] < *betūllu 'birch', from Celtic *betu- or *betū-, cognate of Spanish biezo, Catalan beç, Occitan bèç (< bettiu); Spanish abedul, French bouleau, Italian betulla (< betula); akin to Irish beith, Welsh bedw, Breton bezv. Derivatives: vidoeiral, Vidoal ou Vidal 'place with birch-trees'.



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